International Problems

VOL. LXII, N°. 1, 2010.

James LEIGH and Predrag VUKOVIĆ,

ABSTRACT   In recent decades world supply of oil has been increasingly held in the Islamic countries around the Persian Gulf. The fact that the level of oil production is high in these countries and that they possess most of the world’s oil reserves could be extremely significant. This “petropower” could lead to strategic geopolitical developments when oil is used as economic and political weapons. It may be that the apocalyptic appeal of militant Islamism coming out of Iran can weld both Shia and Sunni people of the region to the cause of establishing a world Islamic “caliphate”. This may appear in a new world of a tripartite mix of superpowers, one of which could be an Iranian-led oil rich Islamic bloc of Gulf states. Each superpower would vie for advantage, and particularly two of these superpowers would seek favour in maintaining supplies of oil imports increasingly from a potentially Iran dominated mix of oil producing Islamic countries.
Key words   Iran, Islamism, Shia, Sunni, oil, Persian Gulf, OPEC, geopolitics, nuclear weapons, civilization clash

Tatjana MILIĆ,

ABSTRACT   Adoption of the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance represents victory of a decade long initiative to fight the impunity for this hideous crime. The author presents the Convention and analyses some troubling issues which may undermine the overwhelming optimism about its adoption. First part of the article introduces the problem of enforced disappearance. Insight into the history of the legal regulation of the problem has been given in the second part. Third part presents key segments of the Convention, while final, fourth part, shed some light on the perspectives of the implementation of the Convention.
Key words   enforced disappearance, human rights, International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, Committee on Enforced Disappearance

Aleksandar FATIĆ,

ABSTRACT   The paper explores the view of political transitions from the standpoint of capacity for collective action, and seeks to use a causal analysis of the motivation for collective action and its public articulation as a method of interpreting modern political systems that would be a feasible alternative to the traditional quantitative and comparative method that focuses on the specific aspects of transitions. The author argues that the capacity for collective action within a political system correlates directly to the degree of internal legitimacy of public policy. Such legitimacy is necessarily based on the dominant value system within the transitional process. In addition, the author stipulates that this capacity is reversely proportional to the degree of structural violence in society.
Key words   legitimacy, authority, public support, collective action, social structure, centralised networks, cliques, »small world» networks, hierarchical networks, structural violence, social control


ABSTRACT   The position of small and medium size countries in international context has been studied. The main criteria of power in international relation is still the military and economic force, despite the fact that the size and resources of a country is not equivalent to its actual international influence. With the imposition of Vilsonian principles and with the creation of UN, the position of small and medium size countries has been somehow improved. It becomes even more favourable in the context of a well defined State coalition, which provides with some additional instruments of power. The European Union is the best example of a coalition providing a good framework for small and medium countries. In this article, six specifics mechanisms providing additional influence to small and medium size countries of the EU have been identified. They include the specificity of the EU legal system, decision-making, the functioning of the EU bodies, the process of “europeisation” etc.
Key words   small and medium size countries, EU, international order, equality of states, interstates relations, europeisation

Aleksandar JAZIĆ,

ABSTRACT   The author considers the basic elements of terrorist propaganda and targets terrorist groups wish to achieve by informing mass media on their acts. In the field of propaganda, they endeavour to point to their presence, objectives and positions by committing certain acts. Every terrorist act is planned so to make its symbolism clearer pointing to the positions of terrorists on some political issue. In order to commit a successful terrorist act it is necessary to carry out a long-term planning in the sphere of propaganda. For that purpose terrorists apply various strategies and tactics. The information of the public in some country on the committed terrorist act is the basic objective of terrorist groups. For this reason they attempt to, above all, attract attention of mass media. In the field of information, terrorism could be best fought by the establishment of co-operation between the government and media that should exchange information. This also implies that media should be more involved in the public diplomacy.
Key words   propaganda, terrorism, political objectives, 11 September, mass media, USA, public diplomacy

Dobrica VESIĆ,

ABSTRACT   The changes companies are facing at the beginning of this century result from the impact of three factors. The first factor is globalisation – a huge increase in exchange and availability of new products and services and a dramatic increase in mobility of foreign investment, movement of people and international competition. Another factor is the impact of modern communications technology. Rapid changes in all forms of technology allow a rapid access to various ways of communication with low cost, what leads to opening of markets to consumers worldwide. These two factors have contributed to the change of power in the market from producers to consumers or end users. Within this context, the availability of information in the company as well as the determination of global brands and services becomes a phenomenon of global markets.
Key words   globalisation, policy, system, international competition, communications technology, power of market

International Problems

VOL. LXII, N°. 2, 2010.

György SIMON Jr.,
Factors and Problems of Economic Growth in Hungary, Russia and Serbia (in English)

ABSTRACT   The paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of growth mechanism in three transitional economies – Hungary, Russia and Serbia. The author searches for an answer to the question what fundamental factors, internal and international, determined the long-term growth of the national economies in these countries from the early 1960s to the present global crisis. Wherever it was possible, he made comparisons between the pre-transition and transition periods. Applying the models of mathematical economics, the author carried out an econometric investigation to prove his hypothesis on the system effect of market reforms. He pointed out that market reforms, which were implemented consequently and combined with a growth-oriented economic policy, could substantially contribute to the attainment of better performance.
Key words   economies in transition, economic growth, main determinant factors, international comparisons, Hungary, Russia, Serbia

International Administration over Territories

ABSTRACT   The analysis of the cases concerning international territorial administration involves the results of research of taking over administration over the strategically and internationally important areas in the periods after World War I and II, respectively. All analysed cases among which are the mandates of the League of Nations, non-self-governing, strategic and trust territories or generally speaking, “internationalised territories” in the system of United Nations indicate that international administration of territory is established by the division of power by two or more states in an area or by the transfer of administrative authorities to an international body or the international organisation. As a rule, they are established because the political and social conditions are not fully created as well as because of the unequal power of international legal subjects. The transformation of international territorial administration in the contemporary period results from the transformation of the United Nations collective security system. In critical situations it can serve to achieve political legitimacy and legal and economic subjectivity of the territory
Key words   international territorial administration, League of Nations, colonial mandates, trust territories, non-self-governing territories, interim administration, “internationalised territories”

Slobodanka BURSAĆ,
The Right of Peoples to Self-Determination

ABSTRACT   Applying as a criterion the area of achievement the author divides the right of peoples to self-determination to external and internal, while it is divided to political, economic and cultural when applying the sphere of social life as a criterion. While the right to self-determination undoubtedly belongs to peoples the recognition of this right to other groups, such as indigenous peoples and minorities requires a deeper analysis. The author defines the concept of holders of the right to self-determination that necessarily includes a territorial element. By all this, she analyses two concepts that are related to this right – uti possidetis principle and safeguard clause.
Key words   right to self-determination, people, uti possidetis principle, safeguard clause principle, minorities, indigenous peoples

Miroslav ANTEVSKI,
The Adoption of New Knowledge as the Factor of International Competitiveness

ABSTRACT   This paper deals with the problem of adoption of new knowledge as the core factor of development and international competitiveness. Differences between countries in the level of GDP are largely caused by differences in the levels of technological development and the degree of productivity. R&D sectors and innovative activity are emerging as the key determinants of productivity growth and thus the international competitiveness of nations. The international diffusion of knowledge is an important contributor to the innovation in the national country. Different channels of knowledge diffusion have a different developmental potentials for the host country. FDI and TNCs investment are considered to be a large potential source of new technology and knowledge for host countries. The more technologies brought in the host country, the larger is the scope for technology and knowledge spillovers. Such effects may be significant, but they depend to a large extent on host countries’ ability to accept and adopt available technologies and knowledge. If the technology gap between countries is too large, then the spillovers may not materialize.
Key words   technology difusion, spillover, innovation, knowledge, productivity, competitiveness

Is Ethnic and Cultural-Religious Heterogeneity a Barrier to Economic Development

ABSTRACT   The author analyzes the influence of heterogeneity of religious-ethnic structure on economic growth. Most studies show that extraordinary national-religious diversification has a negative impact on economic performance of countries. However, the institutional arrangements that involve a significant degree of decentralization may be a factor of relaxation of ethnic and religious, i.e. political animosity. Positive economic experiences of some institutional and ethnically complex countries show that the single economic policy is possible and that strong the national heterogeneity is not necessarily a negative factor for economic development if there are viable democratic institutions.
Key words   heterogeneity, nation, religion, structure, economic growth

International Problems

VOL. LXII, N°. 3, 2010.

Žaklina NOVIČIĆ,
Innovations in the Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union after the Lisbon Treaty

ABSTRACT   The article deals with institutional innovations introduced with Lisbon Treaty in the EU common foreign and security policy. The pillar structure of EU was abolished, but main features of intergovernmental decision-making procedures and unanimity would de facto remain. That is the main structural constrain of a single and bolder European outbreak an international scene. An novelty is the some kind of presidentialization (personalization) of the field in the new posts of President of European Council and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. New procedures and structures are introduced also in a realm of Common Security and Defence Policy. A special hope of Eurocrats are put on the ongoing process of setting up new European External Action Serves as de facto new diplomatic service of the Union. However, there is the main paradox of the Lisbon arrangement in that it is supposed to confirm integration through foreign policy success at a same time when Europe is divided over a number of domestic as well as foreign policy issues, and all that at a time of the manifold global financial and economic crises.
Key words   European Union, Common Foreign and Security Policy, presidentialization (personalization) of foreign policy, Common Security and Defence Policy, European External Action Service, “common diplomatic culture”

Blagoje BABIĆ,
China-European Union Relations: a Developing Geoeconomic Axis

ABSTRACT   China and the European Union are very interested in developing their mutual relations. They strengthen their positions in the world business by their co-ordinated acting. In their mutual relations, they apply Geoeconomics’ methods. They do not regard each other as a military threat but as one of the main economic partners. Their economies are highly complementary. “The common economic interests“ have a decisive role in China EU policy and EU China policy, respectively. EU is China’s largest economic partner. It is its largest export market, the largest source of new technologies and equipment and one of the largest sources for foreign investments. China is the second important source of industrial products import to EU and the fastest growing export market for EU. The EU enlargement to the East both favourably and unfavourably affects China’s interests. The main cause of friction in China-EU relations is a high Chinese surplus in their mutual trade, high competitiveness of Chinese products on the EU market and China’s pursuit of energy sources in the parts of the world that Western countries, including the leading EU member states, regard as traditionally “forbidden“ such as the Middle East and Africa. China and EU have created mechanisms to settle conflicts of interest in their mutual trade through dialogue.
Key words   China, European Union, strategic partnership, geoeconomics, trade disputes, foreign investments, technology

Past and Future of Multiculturalism in Southeast Europe

ABSTRACT   Multiculturalism is a logical extension of the politics of equal respect and the politics of recognition but it is not an inheritance of modern liberal state. In the area of Southeast Europe multiculturalism is known through centuries. By the collapse of Yugoslavia, new countries prioritized the strengthening the central state and creation one nation state, deleted memory of multiculturalism of past. When 1993 European Union, through Copenhagen criterion, stipulates condition for accession (respect and protection national minorities), countries of Southeast Europe faced with the implementation of multicultural standards based on assumption that policy of recognition and promotion ethno-cultural diversity can enlarge human freedom, strengthen human rights and democracy. Unlike west federal models, cultural autonomy exclude territorial autonomy, but include institutional autonomy, local government and right to use mother tongue. Models of the multicultural policy are numerous and dependable on political, social and cultural circumstances, but countries of Southeast Europe must accept multicultural future.
Key words   multiculturalism, Southeast Europe, European Union, minority rights

Bojana M. PEROVIĆ,
Constitutional Organization of the Regional State in Spain

ABSTRACT   The author explores distinctiveness of the regional state mostly in Spain as third model of territorial organization. Unlike unitary and federal, regional state is not wide-spread and broad accepted concept of vertical organization although modern Spain and Italy represents examples of good practice. Having in mind diversity of regional identities and strong cultural distinctiveness in Catalonia, the Basque Country, Galicia and other areas, author is wondering if any other model of territorial organization could be sustainable in such socio-cultural environment. After the period of Franco’s dictatorship, which had been trying to exterminate cultural and historical particularities among Spanish nations, decentralization demands have become more stronger resulting with the new constitution adopted in 1978. This act has set the corner-stone of modern Spanish democracy based on Autonomous Communities as specific forms of decentralized state and territorial autonomy.
Key words   territorial organization, regional state, autonomous communities,decentralization, historical communities, nationalism

Edislav MANETOVIĆ and Brano MILJUŠ,
United States of America and the Problem of Kosovo and Metohija

ABSTRACT   Since the break-up of SFRY, one of the key factors in the development of the Kosovo issue has been the USA. Washington will keep on playing the crucial role in further searching for a solution for this problem. Finding of a compromise solution will require to identify and re-examine relevant national interests and foreign policy objectives. The continuity of American interests in Europe since 1989 and in Serbia since 1999, respectively, points to the fact that in the foreseeable future, Washington will not change its three basic goals and they are as follows: NATO enlargement, consolidation of democratic political systems and legitimisation of humanitarian interventions. The last goal has a priority – the independent Kosovo should contribute to the legitimisation of the principle of humanitarian interventions. Consequently, one can conclude that during the September session of the United Nations General Assembly Washington will endeavour to block opening of the talks on the status of Kosovo, while it will keep on defending the unilateral secession of Priština as a sui generis case. Initiating of talks between Belgrade and Priština demands the creation of a striking, but also a specific and feasible idea that would be acceptable for all relevant factors in the process. The frameworks of such an idea are given in the conclusion of the paper.
Key words   Kosovo problem, role of USA, national interests and foreign policy objectives, possibilities for finding a compromise solution, acceptable idea for all relevant factors  

International Problems

VOL. LXII, N°. 4, 2010.

Pero PETROVIĆ and Aleksandar ŽIVKOVIĆ,
Financial Crisis and Forming of the European Monetary Fund – Should the European Agreement be Changed

ABSTRACT   In this paper, the authors analyze the possibilities and advantages of realization of the idea of creating the European Monetary Fund, the European equivalent of the IMF. European officials and experts believe that the financial crisis in the European Union, as was the case in Greece, can be successfully solved within the EU institutions. The assistance that the EMF would provide would be stipulated by fulfilment of strict conditions. The ECB, which insists on independence, would join it in establishing this mechanism, since not any has been created so far that would provide financial assistance to members of the Eurozone.
Key words   European Agreement, changes, crises, European monetary fund, the financial architecture

International Standards in the Fight against Terrorism

ABSTRACT   Terrorism as a phenomenon of the modern society threatens to jeopardise the most important achievements of the modern society. The international community devotes much attention to the fight against terrorism and a number of legal instruments and standards that illustrate the basic message have been formulated in international documents – and the message is that it is possible to fight against terrorism effectively only if principal standards of internationally protected human rights are fulfilled. The fight against terrorism must never lead to the abolition of values and freedoms that are imperilled by terrorist acts. Even if the need to impose certain restrictions for protection of legitimate interests arouses they must be controlled, while they should protect basic human rights and freedoms. Regulating formal conditions for human rights limitation is the way to control the fight against terrorism and prevent the unlimited space for violation of the established and guaranteed freedom standards. The paper refers to the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which provide some limitations to the guaranteed human rights as well as the limitation to their usage also exploring to what extent these restrictions are applied in the fight against terrorism.
Key words   terrorism, human rights, fundamental freedoms, standards of Council of Europe, Committee of Human Rights

Senad GANIĆ,
Review of the Advisory Role of the International Court of Justice

ABSTRACT   This paper presents a brief review and analysis of advisory proceedings before the International Court of Justice as well as an explanation of the nature and importance of advisory opinions as specific decisions of the International Court of Justice. The intention was to make the public more familiar with the nature of these proceedings drawing attention of the professional public to some specific elements that characterize advisory procedures, which in a sense make them closer to the proceedings in resolving disputes between states. Although not binding by their nature as are decisions of the Court, advisory opinions have, however, some weight and importance that primarily stem from the importance and authority of the body that provides them. A non-binding effect of advisory opinions is just a starting point in explaining them. Actually, it is the fact that opinions have a great authority and this requires some further explanations.
Key words   International Court of Justice, advisory opinion, process of resolving disputes between states, advisory process, legal nature of opinions, establishment of facts.

Diplomacy: is it Still Sustainable?

ABSTRACT   Providing the answer to chosen research question on sustainability of diplomacy today is guided by the leading assumption that state is not the sole owner of diplomacy. Relying on ordered existing construction of theoretically and empirically gathered evidence that from its beginnings diplomacy has belonged to every social person and every society the first part of the analysis is used for summing up the indicators and findings why diplomacy could not be enlisted as one of “extinct species”, nor the state for that matter as one of its territorially sovereign entrepreneur. The account of theoretically produced body of knowledge on conditions of sustainable diplomacy is given in the second part. The focus in the third part is on the ongoing turn in understanding of diplomacy. It is growingly realized that its real lair is every social personality and all human societies (historic and geographic). This lair is now theoretically revisited. There are two most visible cognitive results gained. These are the concepts of social entrepreneurship and social power. Concluding remarks are taken for presenting exemplary diplomatic action of one among several of nowadays agile non-territorial sovereigns who by being entrepreneurial in global governance by agreement makes diplomacy sustainable. In wrapping up not only the finding that under existing conditions new forms of diplomatic action of different civil and commercial society entrepreneurs as non-territorial sovereigns make diplomacy sustainable is underlined, but also that it entails the change in entrenched thinking on organisational structure of assenting governance of global affairs.
Key words   diplomacy, diplomatic theory, governance, social entrepreneurship, social power, state, international organization, non-territorial sovereigns, nongovernmental organizations, Internet governance.

Biljana SAVIĆ,
Multilateral Trading System and Regional Economic Integration

ABSTRACT   Developement in recent years suggets that Regional Trade Agreements have become a very prominent feature of the Multilateral Trading System and an important trade policy instrument for WTO Members. Regional agreements can play an important role in promoting trade and in fostering economic developement by increasing trade and FDI flows, and by integrating developing countries into the world economy. However, the proliferation of regional agreements and the development of complex network of preferential trade relations known as the “spaghetti bowl” phenomenon leads to trade diversion which reduce economic efficiency. There is the need to multilateralize regionalism. WTO rules could and should be modified to ensure that regional agreements are designed and implemented so to complement the multilateral process and not to undermine it. A step forward in that direction would be a developing a WTO Action Plan on Regionalism.
Key words   Regional Trade Agreements, Multilateral Trading System, World Trade Organization

Western Balkans in “Turkey’s Strategic Vision”

ABSTRACT   The changes in internal and external policies are under way in Turkey. The secular state was threatened what has been followed by the process of revitalisation and affirmation of the Islamic tradition in Turkey. The state project “Turkey’s Strategic Vision 2023” has been worked out. It provides increase in its power that would turn Turkey from a regional power into a global factor. This requires radical changes in its foreign policy. Apart from the Islamic factor, Turkey’s plans are based on the geopolitical position of this country that sees itself as a hub of energy flows and the future centre of the three continents – Africa, Asia, and Europe. One of the steps towards those changes is the process of desecuritasion and securitisation that includes revitalisation of the religious factor. Radical changes in the Turkish foreign policy also include the Western Balkans as one the priorities of its close surroundings.
Key words   Turkey’s strategic vision, Turkey’s project “Strategic Depth” and Western Balkans, co-operation between Turkey and Serbia