VOL. LXI, NO. 1-2 2009.
Isiaka ALANI BADMUS
THE ROLE OF HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION
AND THE PROTECTION OF CIVILIAN POPULATIONS
The author interrogates the critical question of whether forcible humanitarian intervention be legitimised in spite of clear contradiction to the classical norms of inter-state relations. Classical approach puts emphasize on the principle of sovereignty when governments become the perpetrators of human rights abuses of their citizens, or if states have collapsed into civil war, chaos, and disorder. The author examines this security debate by juxtaposing the age-old doctrine of humanitarian intervention vis-ŕ-vis the imperatives of the concept of 'Responsibility to Protect'. The author argues that humanitarian intervention, due to the ambiguities and controversies surrounding its application, has become an anachronism, which ultimately led to the conceptualisation of Responsibility to Protect vulnerable populations. This approach is based on its concerns with human security as against that of the state and its relevance as arbiter to the longstanding discord between sovereignty and intervention. Finally, the article discusses the mechanisms adopted by the African Union in addressing the conflict between sovereignty and human rights through the application of Responsibility to Protect.
humanitarian intervention, responsibility to protect, civilian populations, the African Union, the United Nations
Dr. Grzegorz MICHALSKI
VALUE BASED MANAGEMENT APPROACH IN INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
The basic financial purpose of the firm is maximization of its value. A inventory management should also contribute to realization of this basic aim. Many current assets management models which we can find in the literature relating to financial management were constructed with the assumption of book profit maximization as basic aim. These models could lacking what relates to another aim, i.e., maximization of enterprise value. This article presents the value based inventory management model modification.
inventory management, value based management, free cash flowinventory management, value based management, free cash flow
Dr. Miroslav ANTEVSKI
DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS:
COMPARATIVE INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES
In this paper the author analyses the main development potentials of foreign direct investments in different world regions. They are real and evident, but not always exploited. It is found out that the developed financial markets, good governance, developed institutions and the size of country have a great impact on the location choices of foreign investors. In developing countries economic, administrative and legislative reforms, as well as developed infrastructure networks, should improve a country's attractiveness for FDIs. In most countries, FDIs are concentrated in developed regions and sell the greatest share of their production on the local market. One of their parts is export-oriented, but at the same time, they are great importers from developed countries. The extent of spillovers is modest in most cases.
foreign direct investments, effects, economic growth, transnational corporations, development
CORRIDOR X - THE CHALLENGE FOR SERBIA'S STRATEGY
TOWARD THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND THE SUEZ CANAL
At the beginning of the 21st century, great powers are fighting for Serbia within new dimensions and two different concepts of its survival: the concept of pure national state and the concept of national state based on cooperative relations. The essence of the common language for these concepts lies in the perception of Corridor X and the river system Danube-Morava-Vardar-Thessalonica's bay as a portion of the route linking Serbia to the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal. Corridor X and the river system Danube-Morava-Vardar-Thessalonica's bay need a new concept of Serbia's national capital. National capital is an important part of a greater system, global capital which presupposes brain circulation on a global level. National capital includes local capital which participates in modernising of Serbian towns, as one of the main goals of Corridor X and this river system. Linking national capital with global capital may be effected through mission, vision and values which could be incorporated in Serbian domestic and foreign policy. With the great powers' influences bypassing across Serbia, some gas pipelines are certainly of great importance for the region. From the aspect of Corridor X and the river system Danube-Morava-Vardar-Thessalonica's bay, this paper highlights the possibilities of interconnecting Serbia with bearers of experience, knowledge, ideas and capital on a global level.
great powers, Serbia, gas pipelines, concepts of national survival, Corridor X, the river system Danube-Morava-Vardar-Thessalonica's bay, capital and its forms, influence bypassing
Dr. Ljubica M. ZJALIĆ
HUMAN RESOURCES AND THEIR LEVEL OF COMPETENCE
RELATING TO ENGAGEMENT INTO ECONOMY AND SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT
It is sure that the human resources have been the main drive of the economic development in times of globalization and general reforms. The productivity of labour has been based on the men-power as capital. Therefore, concept and process of staff training have been valid only based on clearly determinend structure and strategy of the new informative technologies. The term ''human resources'' means aggregate spiritual and physical potential, both latent and used. Knowledge (intellectual capital) is becoming more and more important resource as it directly creates surplus value. The competence and use of the human resources have been considered in that spirit since it is condition to occupy better position in adjoining and creating the rational relation towards European Union.
human resources, competence, globalization, productivity of labour, employment, informative technologies, strategy, development
PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY IN INTERNATIONAL LAW AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION
ON THE TERRITORIES OF FORMER YUGOSLAVIA
The term preventive diplomacy was first used in the United Nations in the late fifties when Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld "invented" it to describe the remaining function that the United Nations could apply in the bipolar system of international relations. Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali included it in the Agenda for Peace in 1992 putting it in the same rank with peace-keeping, peace-making and peace-building concepts, thus giving preventive diplomacy a high political priority. In this paper the author deals with the following questions: the impact of the Cold War on the emergence of preventive diplomacy, meaning of preventive diplomacy, international documents and institutions related to preventive diplomacy and the attempts to implement preventive diplomacy in the former Yugoslavia.
preventive diplomacy, international relations, international law, international security, former Yugoslavia
Dalibor KEKIĆ and Dr. Dane SUBOIĆ
Police diplomacy is one of the most interesting issues of the contemporary international relations. Sources of this issue comes at the beginning of XX century. Organized criminal and terorrism influenced on appearance of international police cooperation at the end of XIX century. Police cooperation has enlarged last years. Termins police attaché and liason officer are used for the same purpose, but there are four key distinctions between them.
Police diplomacy, international relation, organized criminal, terorrism, police cooperation, police attaché
Dr. Srđan MILAINOVIĆ and Dr. elimir KEETOVIĆ
POSSIBILITIES FOR SETTLEMENT OF INTERNAL CONFLICTS
Conflicts have been a constant phenomenon in history both between groups in the archaic communities as well as between global societies and in the international community in general. Although due to the escalation of regional and internal conflicts in the 1990s the prevention and settlement of social conflicts has become a significant topic for the political and theoretical discussions in most cases the applied modalities and the conflict settlement strategies have proved to be inefficient, while the national and super-national arrangements have been helpless. The authors point to the latest strategic options in the conflict prevention. They analyse the issues related to the civilising and institutionalisation of conflicts as well as the effects of the international mediation and the use of force in their termination.
social conflicts, prevention, negotiation, co-operative strategy, international mediation, civilising of conflicts, institutionalisation of conflicts, Harvard model, Western Balkans
VOL. LXI, NO. 3, 2009.
Prof. Dr. Slavko MRKIĆ
INTERNATIONAL LEGAL TREATMENT OF WAR
In this paper, the author presents and analyses various attempts made by the factors in the international community to define the rules of behaviour in waging war as a means of communication among states in resolving their mutual problems. Presenting first the history (several centuries long) of attempts to restrain war waging the author focuses on the endeavours of the League of Nations in the period between the two world wars as well as on the creation of regulations by the United Nations after World War II. The author points out that the United Nations has built a comprehensive system of waging war restraint that, among other things, not only prohibits aggressive war waging, but also any use of armed force or threat of use of force. Some forms of military interventions could be taken only within the UN corresponding procedure. In spite of the fact that the treatment of war is regulated by the law within UN, it is present in the contemporary world as a result of the existing political and economic relations. As the author concludes, war and force keep on being used in practice, sometimes in a very violent way. Thus, they violate the provisions of international law that regulates the rules and treatment of war in international relations.
state, war, aggression, restraints, prohibitions, war crimes, international law, League of Nations, United Nations
Prof. Dr. Hasiba HRUSTIĆ
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MODELS SELECTED
AS A RESPONSE TO THE WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS
The financial crisis has hit the entire world economy. Many governments have been forced to rescue the financial systems, having as their priority to ensure economic recovery. A number of important measures have been taken to promote financial stability, including injection of capital into financial organisations, a substantial expansion of guarantees for bank liabilities by central banks, the recapitalisation and the various liquidity programmes. However, the recovery has required a comprehensive plan to stabilise the financial system and restore normal flows of credit. The ultimate goal of the governments’ activities has been to avoid a protracted economic downturn and restore the conditions for economic growth.
economic recovery, liquidity, recapitalisation, bank guarantees, comprehensive plan, economic growth
THE PROCESS OF NATO ENLARGEMENT IN EUROPE
The paper deals with the main aspects of NATO enlargement since its foundation in 1949. The author points to the basic criteria for NATO accession during the past sixty years. Special reference is given to the main issues concerning accession of new NATO members in the post-Cold War era. The author presents the Study of NATO Enlargement, a basic document that laid out rationales for enlargement. He also gives the key elements of European security and contemporary NATO-Russia relations.
NATO, enlargement, Cold War, security, army, strategy, Partnership for Peace
EUROPEAN UNION - RUSSIA CO-OPERATION IN THE FIELD
OF FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY
The author examines the development of co-operation between Russia and the European Union in the field of foreign and security policy. The research reveals that despite a common interest of Russia and the EU to build a real partnership in this area based on mutual interrelatedness and interdependence, there is still a big gap between the rhetoric and cooperation in practice. The explanations can be found in different expectations and interests of what both sides are trying to achieve through this cooperation. Although EU-Russia cooperation in foreign policy and security matters is still incomplete, some formal steps towards establishing true cooperation in this field have been taken.
European Union, Russian Federation, strategic partnership, political and security cooperation.
NEGOTIATIONS ON MARKET ACCESS WITHIN THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
In this paper the author examines GATT/WTO’s actual contribution to lower tariffs and more open markets. The GATT has played a core role in the reduction of non-agricultural tariffs in developed countries, but some of the oft-quoted trade liberalization figures may be misleading. Developing countries for many decades prior to the Uruguay Round made little use of the GATT to reduce or bind their tariffs. Uruguay Round commitments have mostly extended the binding coverage, sometimes at levels far above the applied rates. It is also important to evaluate the effect of the GATT/WTO on border measures. Here again, the multilateral system can claim partial success. The author also examines GATT/WTO’s contribution to world trade growth.
WTO, GATT, market access, tariffs, multilateral negotiations, international trade
Dr. Dragan ĐUKANOVIĆ and Ivona LAĐEVAC
PRIORITIES OF FOREIGN POLICY STRATEGY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
In this article the authors point to the basic priorities the future foreign policy of the Republic of Serbia should include. They point out that a basic social and political consensus on the most important foreign policy objectives should be primarily achieved. Afterwards, the way of tactical and operational implementation of the set objectives should be defined within the strategy specifying the constitutional and legal institutional frameworks for its implementation. Considerable attention is devoted to the positioning of the Republic of Serbia to the European Union and NATO, the United States of America and the Russian Federation as well as to the participation of Serbia in the work of universal and regional organisations. The paper also analyses the bilateral and multilateral relations in the Western Balkans region.
foreign policy, foreign policy strategy, priorities, Republic of Serbia, European Union, NATO, United States of America, Russian Federation, South-Eastern Europe, regional initiatives, developing countries
VOL. LXI, NO. 4, 2009.
Dr. Jasminka SIMIĆ
CHALLENGES FACING NATO IN THE 21ST CENTURY
During the entire post Cold-War era numerous security challenges were pushing NATO in search of a new mission. Although redefined several times in the past, NATO’s mission is still not steady and in its final shape. NATO’s framework is not final yet for several reasons: lack of internal balance; NATO is moving towards rather “loose“ formula of Trans-Atlantic relations, through a “Coalition of the Willing“, in which countries accept the level and scope of military engagement in war missions (Afghanistan and Iraq) according to their own interests. This certainly has influenced the character of NATO mission in the 21st Century. Therefore, NATO countries do not speak with “one voice“ and they do not equally participate in military missions. Instead, specific countries are engaged in specific issues, in compliance with UN Security Council resolutions. NATO deepening and widening process is continuing in the 21st Century.
NATO, SFRJ, Euro-Atlantic security, cold war, UN, EU, OSCE, USA, Serbia, Euro-Atlantic Integration, European Security and Defence Policy
ANTI-TERRORIST MEASURES WITHIN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
The end of the Cold War brought a period of stability andsafety, which gave an additional stimulus to the European Union to play a key role in the international security arena. However, due to the potential risk of importing instability, the European Council adopted the European Security Strategy in 2003 under the title A Secure Europe in a Better World, the first strategic vision of the Member States. The European Neighbourhood Policy is designed to avoid new dividing lines between the enlarged EU and its neighbours to the east and on the southern and eastern shores of Mediterranean. Accordingly, tackling the issue of terrorism in terms of the new ENP has appeared to be a vital synergic component linking the EU member states and its partners. This paper considers the potential of the ENP to constitute as an instrument for the fight against terrorism engaging joint participation of the European Union and its neighbouring region.
European Union, European Neighbourhood Policy, terrorism, security, anti-terrorist measures
Foreign Policy of the Barak Obama Administration – a New Rhetoric or a New Course?
The author analyses the foreign policy of the United States during the first nine months of the new administration. The assessment takes into consideration President Barak Obama’s programme and statements, concrete actions in bilateral and multilateral arenas, emerging proposals for the organizational and legislative changes within relevant departments, as well as the legacy of previous administration, constrains related to the political and administrative system and to traditional selfperception of the role of United States in world affairs. Obama’s rhetoric and style are substantially different from its predecessor, as he emphasizes global interdependence and necessity for focusing on common interests. So far, diplomatic solutions are prioritized over regime change and force. It is still unclear whether Obama wants to manage transition from uni-polar to multi-polar world, or only to legitimize American exceptionalism by consulting with broader range of actors.
United States, Barack Obama, foreign policy, interventionism, State Department, Congress, USAID, UN, EU, NATO
Prospects for Re-establishment of Co-operation between Serbia
and the Non-Aligned Movement
With over 118 members, the Non-Aligned Movement is a significant factor in contemporary international relations. It is an organisation where the needs and positions of the majority of the mankind are articulated. The Republic of Serbia has renewed its membership in the Non-Aligned Movement and since XIII Conference of Heads of States or Governments that took place in February 2003 in Kuala Lumpur it has acted as an observer in this organisation. The co-operation with non-aligned countries can contribute to strengthening of the international position of Serbia, thus expanding the possibilities for its acting with the purpose of achieving of its own interests.
Non-Aligned Movement, non-aligned countries, Serbia as observer in the Movement
Energy Market in European Union and Interests of Serbia
The author deals with energy market in Europe by presenting the gross consumption of energy as well as production of energy within the European Union. The need of EU for natural gas and crude oil is one of the main factors why Russia is still the key player in Europe’s energy market. European Union is trying to leave Russia behind by importing crude oil and natural gas from countries like Norway, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Iraq, but Europe is still highly dependent of Russian energy. Considering these facts, Serbia recognizes that its economic and political interest is to become a strategic partner with European Union as transit country for Russia’s natural gas and crude oil.
primary energy sources, EU, energy dependence rate, OPEC, Serbia, Russia, energy efficiency, energy intensity, Pan European oil pipeline (PEOP), South Stream gas pipeline, Nabuko gas pipeline
French-Serbian Relations in the 19th and 20th Centuries
In this paper the authors deals with the evolution of the Franco-Serbian relations in European, regional and local contexts during the last two centuries. Two nations are characterized by material disproportion, geographic distance and cultural differences. Hence, the relations have been observed in their complexity and variations of intensity. Special attention is paid to versatile perceptions of the two nations, which have been influenced by the combination of political, ideological, economical and cultural factors in a given time. The author’s conclusion is that due to reach tradition of the French-Serbian relations, the Serbs poses spiritual capital in France that is the base for further development of good relations between the two countries and two nations in the context of Serbia’s European integrations.
France, Serbia, Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenians, Yugoslavia, Balkan, Southeastern Europe, inter-state relations, history of international relations, influences, perceptions