VOL. LX, NO. 1 2008.
THE ROLE OF
MILITARY IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DEMOCRATIC AND EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE: U.S.
conditions of globalization the term governance does not point to
governmental and state actors, but it refers to intertwined governmental and
non-governmental, private, transnational, national and local actors and
networks, which guide and govern. Efficient and democratic governance has
become an intended end of the state for the external assistance provision,
notably for the United States. Analyzing the changes within the Defense
Department and State Department after September 11, 2001, the author argues
that, by militarizing the civil spheres of assistance such as foreign
developmental aid, the USA jeopardize the main goal mentioned above. There
is a tendency in USA to equalize military occupation with the modern concept
of governance, which is an oxymoron as the military is one among many actors
of governance and it can support democratic and efficient governance only by
the establishment of security and its own accountability.
military, governance, USA, democratization, developmental aid,
militarization, stability and reconstruction, security
Aleksandar FATIĆ, Aleksandra
RECONCILIATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER
the general philosophy of punishment in its contours, the authors attempt to
establish conceptual connections between the philosophical roots of
international criminal law for war crimes and reconciliation as an
overarching goal of international criminal justice. Reconciliation is
discussed in the paper both as a value and as a process, and the authors
strive to practically underline the issue of the capability of the
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
to actually serve the purpose of reconciliation. The authors conclude that
the ITCY suffers from substantial deficiencies in its capability to effect
reconciliation, not because it is politically biased, as is often remarked
by analysts, but rather because of procedural and substantive legal problems
encountered in its operation that shape it as less than an adequate criminal
court generally speaking.
justice, punishment, reconciliation,
Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia,
CONTROL RULES IN THE EU AND THEIR EXTRATERRITORIAL APPLICATION
The paper first
endeavours to analyse the limits within which competition rules can be
applied to the situations where the addressees of the measures taken by a
competition authority are located outside the territory of the State; and
second, whether a concentration of undertakings, initiated in the firm in
the third countries, could be subjected to the EU jurisdiction. In
particular, the author deals with the aspect of extraterritorial effect of
the Merger Control Rules of the EU, as ensconced in Reg. 139/2004.
EU Merger control rules, legislative jurisdiction, enforcement jurisdiction,
community dimension, supranational entity, extraterritorial application
DIRECT INVESTMENT: CHARACTERISTICS, PATTERNS, AND EFFECTS
researched the foreign direct investment flows, patterns and effects in
conditions of regional economic integration in Europe. The foreign direct
investment presence results in two effects: first, increase in competition,
and second, creation of forward and backward linkages between domestic firms
and foreign affiliates. The benefits of foreign direct investment for their
host countries take the form of various types of externalities or spillovers
(of technology, knowledge, productivity). The potential spillover benefits
could be realized if domestic firms have the capacity to absorb foreign
technologies and skills.
foreign direct investment, regional economic integration, effects, economic
growth, trade patterns, transnational corporations
TRADE AND TRANSNATIONAL COMPANIES – SUBSTITUTES OR COMPLEMENTS
companies are the key drivers of foreign direct investments and major actors
in international trade. They are involved in more than two-third of
international trade and determine its direction, composition and volume. The
relationship between transnational companies and international trade is
complex and interwoven, raising the following question: are transnational
companies substitutes or complements of international trade? The author
explores this relationship. She studies the role of these companies in
international trade as a whole and in foreign trade of domestic and host
international trade, transnational companies, foreign direct investments
BRETTON WOODS 2
SYSTEM AND U. S. BALANCE OF PAYMENT
explores the evolution, functioning, similarities and differences between
the original Bretton Woods international monetary system that operated from
1945 to 1973 and the present modified institution, which is symbolically
called Bretton Woods 2 System. The existing international financial
architecture keeps on being based on the hegemony of the US dollar, as a
dominant reserve currency. However, in spite of the fact that in most cases
the present international monetary system implies the regime of flexible
foreign exchanges rates, a characteristic of this system is that many
countries in different degrees refuse to accept the appreciation of their
national currencies to the US dollar. At the same time, the domination of
the USA, the most indebted country in the world, is becoming a very serious
threat to its sustainability. However, as the author concludes, the creators
of the international monetary system, being aware how serious could be the
consequences of its cessation, endeavour to extend its operation accepting
less expensive consequences of keeping it alive.
Bretton Woods system, foreign exchange reserves, US balance of payments,
securities, foreign exchange rate, bonds, sterilisation.
"EUROPE OF THE REGIONS" –
AN ATTEMPT TO OVERCOME ANTINOMY OF FREEDOM AND ORDER - A REALITY OR UTOPIA
Since the beginning of the
European integration process until the present day the states have given up
some significant elements of their sovereignty, transferring an increasing
number of authorities to the European institutions. The extended framework
within which the rules of the European game are determined also exerts a
considerable impact on the regions as integral units of the present-day
complex states. Politically and economically powerful regions are more and
more independent in the contemporary European political and economic space.
This has created a distorted picture of “Europe of the regions” where the
regions and European institutions will establish direct contacts, making the
role of states superfluous. In this paper, the author endeavours to offer a
theoretical, historical and philosophic frame for consideration of the
attempts to overcome the antinomy of freedom and order both in the past and
in the present, particularly analysing the position and role of the regions
in the European Union political and economic system.
"Europe of the regions", European integration, subnational factors, European
VOL. LX, NO. 2-3, 2008.
EUROPEAN UNION IN THE NEW INTERNATIONAL SURROUNDINGS
The author analyses the development of EU in the new international surroundings during the last decade, also exploring the development of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). The first part treats the changes in international relations, the role of USA and the NATO evolution.With the changes in international relations that are characterised by the relative weakening of USA, the rise of the powers such as China and Russia as well as the process of globalisation within the multipolar frameworks, the European Union and its members states are facing the problem of adjusting to the new conditions. The second part of the article overviews the EU development, its eostrategic priorities as well as the development of ESDP.In the last dozen of years, the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the ESDP development have gone through a dynamic evolution. The attempts of the EU countries to emancipate from USA and become a serious factor in international relations imply that it should strengthen its international identity, and the political and military components, in particular.
European Union, reform of EU, European Security and Defence Policy, NATO, international relations
NEW AMERICAN UNILATERALISM
The article deals with the phenomenon of the so-called New American Unilateralism. The author searches for the causes, genesis and sources of
such a behaviour of the current American administration, especially emphasising the importance of the neoconservative group, which has been
creating, justifying and implementing this kind of unilateral strategy. Criticism of this politics is presented, coming from different directions. The
author concludes that it is more the new discourse than the new politics, since the politics of George W. Bush does not substantially differ from the politics
of previous American presidents. Having that in mind, it seems possible to predict that the strategy of the next president will probably go along the same
lines and unilateralism will keep on being practiced as long as the world functions according to the unipolar model, with US as a global hegemon.
unilateralism, USA, neoconservatives, George W. Bush, Europe
György SIMON and György SIMON Jr.
SOME QUESTIONS OF WORLD ECONOMIC COMPETITION
The paper searches for an answer to the following questions: why had the situation in Japan and the European Union situation improved in comparison with the one in United States prior to the first oil price shock; what factors altered this tendency later, especially from the 1990s onwards; what was the role of the international economic conditions in all that? Applying the models of mathematical economics, the authors have proven their main statements by an econometric investigation. The most important
conclusion that can be drawn is that in the world economic competition the situation both in Japan and the European Union was primarily determined by the changes in the world economic conditions, chiefly the oil prices in the world market and the exchange rates, what can less be said of the United States.
world economic competition, USA, European Union, Japan, long-term tendencies, main determinant factors
REGULATION OF CITIZENSHIP IN THE TERRITORY OF FORMER SFR YUGOSLAVIA
The continuity with the former federal and republic nationality in the successor states of former SFRY confirms that it has kept on being regulated by their internal laws. However, not in all cases regulations of citizenship have been implemented in accordance with the provisions that are defined by international law. The basic nationality principles have not been applied to the citizens of different ethnic origin. For their own political interests the states did not take measures to duly grant citizenship to the persons that at the time of succession were nationals of the predecessor state. The delay in passing and implementing the laws, non-respect of the right of option, the exclusiveness of domestic citizenship and the absence of solutions for the protection of family unity had a negative reflection on the achievement of rights of citizens. The problems have gradually been overcome by introducing novelties in laws, by adopting administrative legislation and jurisprudence of the successor states, but as far as equality before the law is concerned some issues have remained unsolved.
Nationality, Succession of State, Law on Citizenship, SFR Yugoslavia, SR Yugoslavia, Serbia, Monte Negro, Kosovo and Metohija, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
TERRORISM AS NON-CONVENTIONAL SECURITY THREAT
Endeavouring to establish the essence and the basic structural characteristics of the contemporary forms of terrorism the author firstly analyses different attempts to define the phenomenon itself as one of the most significant forms of the non-unconventional security threats. The paper points to different motives and objectives (political, social and other) of some actors that belong to various terrorist groups and organisations acting in the world today. In that regard, the approach of the states and international factors to this challenge should be different. As the author concludes that the results that have been achieved so far in the “war on terror“, as well as the consequences resulting from solely applying repression and the principle of non negotiation with terrorists, are such that should be critically reconsidered.
terrorism, security, roots of terrorism, prevention
MULTINATIONAL STATES – CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES: THE CASE OF SCOTLAND
The author analyses the major changes to the political ideology and policy platform of the stateless nation’s movement in Western European postindustrial states, taking the Scottish National Party as an special example. The analysis starts with the evolution of the Anglo-Scottish relations beginning from the creation of Union of English and Scotish kingdoms by the Act of Union in 1707. Author then presents the contemporary relationship between these two provinces of the United Kingdom. He stresses that since 1990s, the Scottish national movement have been pursuing the “silent constitutional revolution” of this multinational community, which means using the most of globalisation, the European integration process, and the so called devolution, to maximize the autonomy of Scotland within the United Kingdom.
Scotland, United Kingdom, nation, nationalism, identity, devolution, globalisation, democracy, European Union
VOL. LX, NO. 4, 2008.
aklina STEPANOVIĆ PETRAC
CHARACTER OF THE PRESENT FINANCIAL CRISIS IN USA AND ITS POSSIBLE GLOBAL CONSEQUENCES
The US economy is facing the first big financial crisis in the 21st century. The author points out that the current crisis is much different from the previous ones by its characteristics, causes, consequences it produces on the world economy and international financial system in particular. The problems that were noticeable in the US loan market in the second half of 2007, which have escalated into a crisis of the financial system in 2008 creating instability in the world financial markets, were mostly caused by the losses on the American real estate market. For the fact that the highly integrated world economy has enabled rapidly and easily transmission the effects of real and monetary trends, reducing, on the other hand, the countries' prospects to protect their economies and populations from their effects it is evident that the way the US manages its financial system has the exceptional significance beyond USA, too. As the increasing number of countries is facing with direct or indirect effects of the current crisis it is in the interest of all those that undertaking actions to stop further negative repercussions on their national economies and ensure global economy growth.
USA, indebtedness, interest rates, securities, mortgage loans, credit crisis, financial market, deflation, world economy
POSSIBILITIES FOR A PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
It had undoubtedly been the inadequate political and legal structure of the ethnic status and relations in the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well the unwillingness of the political elites to make a compromise that created a rather favourable potential for destructive shaping of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian social conditions. Immediately before the outbreak of war in BH (1992-1995) the preconditions had been created for a comparatively peaceful settlement of the unresolved political issues within the republic. Taking into consideration that the international community had assumed to act as a mediator its role could have been very important. However, with its "pre-war" position to BH it did not take advantage of the opportunities that were offered to settle or simplify the internal Bosnian and Herzegovinian political disputes, but, on the contrary, it contributed to the outbreak of war, its destructiveness and long duration, getting itself into a rather awkward position.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croats, Serbs, Muslims / Bosniaks, international community, war
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL COMPONENTS OF CORRUPTION AND MONEY LAUNDERING
The author analyses two mutually linked phenomena - corruption and money laundering - a negative phenomena, which are today very spread in a number of countries. The prevention of corruption and money loundering represent one of the leading challenges of modern social changes. Appearing in political and social life, they make the citizens and the public convinced that society can not function without coruption and money laundering. These criminal acts are skillfully covered up and difficult to reveal, thanks to the help support of bureaucracy, tehnocracy and plutocracy of certain society.
policy, corruption, money laundering, criminal acts, prevention
THE RIGHT TO COMMUNICATION AS A NEWLY ACHIEVED HUMAN RIGHT
Information technologies, free flow of information, free media and the right to communication are the pillars communicative sovereignty springs up from, relying upon them, too. This was the 20th century creation but it has been globally and more fully realised in the 21st century. Civilisational openness and acceptance ability are the key categories for prosperity of communicative sovereignty.
communicative sovereignty, human rights and freedoms, right to expression, right to communication, state sovereignty, new media technologies.
SERVICES IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET
The author analyses the role of services in the international market. Services sector has significant influence on economic growth and efficiency. Share of services in the world market is in the contrast with great role they play in the domestic market. Because of their intangible nature the trade in services is subject to a much large limitations than the trade in goods. Insufficient data or incomparable data on international trade in services makes this sector hard to analyze. Brought together to solve those problems few international organizations have made Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services. This and many others are ongoing work to set internationally comparable data for the future analysis.
services, international trade, balance of payments, WTO, GATS, European Union, USA
Ruica MRDAKOVIĆ CVETKOVIĆ
ENERGY RESOURCES MANAGEMENT OF SERBIA AND ITS FOREIGN TRADE WITH RUSSIA
Resources management by a national economy is of great significance for every country. If they are deficient then they should be purchased abroad. Oil and oil derivatives are the energy resources that are in shortest supply in Serbia. The statistical data on its foreign trade in the period January-July 2008 show that Serbia recorded the greatest foreign deficit in its trade with the Russian Federation. This primarily results from its energy resources imports. Russia is Serbia's most important partner in strategic commodities supply. For this reason the measures for abolishing or decreasing the oil export duties would considerably reduce the production costs in our economy. This would lead to an improvement in a large number of our economic branches.
energy resources management, economic co-operation between Serbia and Russia, oil, export duties