Duško LOPANDIĆ, Ph.D.
TWO CENTURIES LONG RESHAPING OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS – FROM EMPIRES TO EUROPEAN INTEGRATION –
Due to its favourable geostrategic position, from ancient times the Balkan region has been doomed to experience turbulent historical events. The great empires – Turkey, Austria and Russia had had their interests in this region. Under their rule, Balkan states gained various forms of autonomy, independence; they also entered conflicts and established cooperation among themselves. The culmination of cooperation was the creation of SFRY, which did not last long. Stability of the Balkans has always depended on external acting - the influence of great powers. Nowadays, the European Union plays the role of a modern mediator in making a balance and achieving stabilization in Balkan relations. In this article, the author presents the two centuries long international relations in the Balkans and six major changes in the regional inter-state system (the Congress of Vienna period; Congress of Berlin; Versailles Peace Treaty; European Nazi new order; the order after World War II and the Balkans at the beginning of the 20th century). Key words
Balkans, national self-determination, eastern question, the Congress of Vienna, independence, Yugoslavia, European integrations, European Union, multilateral cooperation.
Dobrica VESIĆ, Ph.D.
Cuba – The Beginning of Social and Economic Reforms
The economy of Cuba is still under the central supervision of the political authorities. In recent years, some reforms have been implemented to reduce the insolvency of companies and countries, increase effectiveness and efficiency of companies and eliminate chronic food shortages as well as some other fixed assets and consumer goods. Although the Cuban economy is based on state ownership, private entrepreneurship is on the rise. Tourism has become one of the main sources of income. The paper analyzes the current social and economic conditions in Cuba with emphasis on the beginning of certain reform measures after a half of century isolation and a lack of reforms. Key words
Cuba, reforms, economy, tourism, real estate.
Dragan PETROVIĆ, Ph.D.
Ukraine During the Presidential Mandate of Viktor Yanukovych 2010-2012
The paper analyses the political and social situation in Ukraine in the last two years with Viktor Yanukovych holding the position of President, while his Party of Regions has ensured majority in the Parliament and the Government. Coming of Yanukovich to power marked the end of the period of domination of the so-called „Orange Revolution“ proponents from 2005-2010, which brought political instability and economic weakness to Ukraine. Contrary to this, in these two years, Yanukovych has managed to improve the economic situation in the country to some extent, to settle down the political and social conflicts and to achieve a geopolitical balance between Russia and the EU. In spite of all this, Ukraine faces a number of problems and challenges that make the situation in the country not quite stable, although prominent progress has been made in the last two years. The paper also considers the possibility of deepening the traditionally friendly Ukrainian-Serbian relations, this also including more intensive trade between Ukraine and Serbia in the last two years. Key words
Contemporary Ukraine, President Viktor Yanukovych, settlement of political conflicts, challenges in future, Ukraine and Serbia.
Slаđаn MILOSAVLJEVIĆ, MA
NATO Expansion to the East as a Determining Factor of the Russian Strategy of Security in the Post-Cold War International Order
In the last decade of the 20th century, the idea had emerged in the West to expand the NATO to the East and to admit Central and East European countries as full members to that alliance. The idea resulted from the intention of the West to capitalize, by its own opinion, on the victory in the Cold War and to establish a NATO-centric security system as a primary and dominant in Europe. There were no big obstacles on that way and that idea was operationalised in the next few years. Russia found itself before a political and security dilemma. It was necessary for it to take a stand and define a new strategy towards this political and strategic problem and to protect its vital national interests. The amplitude of possible options ranged from a hard, irreconcilable position, continuation of the confrontation and returning to the Cold War matrix, to the unconditional acceptance of the NATO expansion towards the Russia’s borders and making an irreparable damage to Russia’s security and political interests. A compromised option was made, which consisted of making as small as possible the damage and making as much benefit as it was possible under the given circumstances. Russia institutionalised and formalised this perception by its decisions and positions in its basic strategic documents (The National Security Concept, The Foreign Policy Concept, Russia’s Military Doctrine), which were adopted at the beginning and in end of the last decade of the 21st century. They fully verified the rationality and correctness of the chosen Russian Federation’s strategy. Key words
Russian Federation, NATO, security strategy, new world order.
Željko Bjelajac, Ph.D., Jelena Matijašević, Ph.D. and Duško Dimitrijević, Ph.D.
Significance of Establishment of International Standards in the Fight Against High Technology Crime
Great opportunities in all spheres of social life that are put before the man simultaneously with the development of information technology despite numerous, previously unknown advantages, have exposed him to new and very serious risks. It is very difficult to give comprehensive determinants of the term cyber crime. Despite various theoretical studies, practical examples, the national regulatory framework as well as various international instruments, it is clear that the complexity and severity of this phenomenon is much higher than it has been shown. Since the first international initiative on the fight against cyber crime (Conference on Criminological Aspects of the Economic Crime), which in 1976 was started by the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, the most important activities that have been carried out in this area belong to the jurisdiction of Interpol, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU) and the Group of Eight (Group of economic most developed countries). In order to establish appropriate international standards to combat cyber crime as efficient as possible, international institutions have adopted a variety of documents - conventions, resolutions, directives, recommendations, conclusions, studies, etc., which are based on relevant principles. The most important document in establishing international standards in combating cyber crime is certainly the Convention on Cybercrime, which aims is to harmonize national legislation with regard to substantive provisions, then, to introduce adequate instruments in national legislations regarding the procedural provisions and to establish fast and effective institutions and procedures of international cooperation. Key words
Cyber crime, international standards, Convention on Cybercrime, Council of Europe, European Union, international organizations.
Milan Igrutinović, MA
Frameworks of European Union Strategic Culture
The paper analyses the position of the European Union as a special factor in international relations, which is being perceived through the prism of strategic culture. At the beginning, the author presents a short overview of strategic culture as a concept and methodological approach in the study of the behaviour of nation states as factors in the system of international relations. They should also establish the position of the European Union as a special supranational factor with its own strategic culture. The paper discusses the basic division in the relationship between the national strategic culture and the supranational EU strategic culture as well as the role of the legitimacy of the use force in that relationship. In the final part, the paper critically discusses the perspectives of the strategic culture as the dominant approach to the problem and its dependence on short-term phenomena that reduce the possibilities to establish a clear theoretical model, which has been confirmed in practice. Key words
strategic culture, European Union, constructivism, CSDP, legitimacy, norms, security.
Branko Pavlica, Ph.D.
Nazi Crimes in History and in International Law
In this paper, the author analyses crimes in history and in international law. He devotes special attention to the crimes committed in Nazi Germany in the light of the evolution of contemporary international law. Key words
Germany, crimes, international law, history.
Jelena Lopičić Jančić, Ph.D.
Breaches of 1949 Geneva Conventions with Respect to Wounded, Sick and Prisoners of War in Wars Waged from 1945 to 1990
After World War II, numerous wars and armed conflicts were waged worldwide, in which besides soldiers, civilian population, prisoners of war, wounded and sick were also killed. In these wars, 1949 Geneva Conventions were massively violated against prisoners of war, wounded and sick, what represented war crimes. The paper gives a brief overview of some of the wars and armed conflicts that were waged in various parts of the world in the period from 1945 to 1990, when numerous war crimes against prisoners of war, wounded and sick were committed. Despite the involvement of the United Nations and various intermediary international peacekeeping missions, unfortunately, these wars were not prevented. Only the International Red Cross in Geneva partially succeeded in its humanitarian mission to improve the status of prisoners of war, wounded and sick in prison camps where housing conditions were very difficult, the epidemics raged and there was a lack of basic hygiene and often a lack of minimum, medical aid, which in many cases caused mortal consequences and permanent destruction of health. It is significant that in scientific and professional literature there are no data that for these numerous war crimes anyone was criminally responsible, except for a few negligible exceptions. Key words: Wounded, sick, prisoners of war, 1949 Key words
Wounded, sick, prisoners of war, 1949 Geneva Conventions, 1945-1990 wars, war crimes.